WWF AND THE LOGGERS: A BRIEF HISTORY OF GREENWASHING IN THE CONGO

   Survival International*

Republishrd from http://assets.survivalinternational.org/documents/1654/wwf-and-the-loggers.

Introduction

In the Congo Basin, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is supporting squads of wildlife guards that abuse tribal people as well as
a network of “protected areas” that is driving them from their ancestral homelands. This is not just destroying lives; it is harming conservation. By supporting projects that scapegoat tribal people, WWF is diverting action away from tackling the real causes of environmental destruction: logging and corruption.

Logging companies not only extract precious trees that have
a multitude of uses for tribal people like the Baka and Bayaka “Pygmies.”2 Perhaps more importantly, they also carve new roads deep into the rainforest, drawing outsiders to previously remote regions. Wildlife trafficking networks then take root, with the complicity of local authorities and military elites.

Some of the world’s largest logging g ood Group. Several of these companies have paid WWF in order to take part in its flagship “Global Forest & Trade Network” scheme and use its iconic panda logo. 3

In theory, the companies are supposed to work towards being certified as sustainable by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), a scheme that WWF helped to set up. Yet many are never certified and even companies that are continue to violate national forestry laws and international standards on tribal peoples’ rights.

None of WWF’s partners that feature here has received or
even sought the consent of the tribal peoples whose forests
it is destroying. WWF should not enter any relationship with
a company that fails to obey the law or respect tribal rights, something that it recognized when it drew up its policy on human rights. 4 Yet WWF has violated this policy time and again.

WWF was or certainly should have been aware of the reports we have collected here. It should itself have investigated them, precisely because of the pattern of wrongdoing they revealed. There’s no evidence to indicate that it did this.

It’s a con. WWF, like many other big conservation organizations, is partnering with industry and destroying the environment’s best allies.

March 1991

A research team commissioned by WWF visits several logging concessions in southeast Cameroon. Several of these are operated by WWF’s future logging partners: SEFAC (SEFAC Group), SOTREF (Decolvenaere Group), SIBAF (Bolloré Group). It finds that

Unquestionably, logging has led to the widespread dispersal and destruction of game and loss of forest habitat. [It provides] easy access to large areas of the forest that were used by only a very few before the coming of the logging companies.

The team hears from Baka that many more elephants are being killed since the new
logging trails were opened. It recommends that WWF “focuses on the professional poachers, middlemen and consumers in urban centers and logging companies” rather than on people like the Baka hunting to feed their families. 6

March 1999

WWF President, HRH Prince Philip, visits the logging company SEFAC (SEFAC Group)
in Cameroon. He reportedly welcomes the company’s actions towards sustainable forest management. 7

December 1999

The Cameroonian government finds “anarchic” and illegal operations in one of SEFAC’s logging concessions. 8

March 2000

SEFAC is fined and its activities are suspended for three months.9

March 2000

The logging company SIBAF (Bolloré Group) is fined for a logging infraction. 10

April 2000

A member of the Rougier Group in Cameroon is found to have been logging illegally in Cameroon. 12

July 2000

SEFAC is disqualified from bidding for new logging concessions due to “serious wrongdoing in its logging activities.” 13

July 2000

The Cameroonian government finds a member of the Rougier Group is logging illegally. 14

September 2000

According to Greenpeace, SIBAF and SEFAC have recently been found by the Cameroonian government to be logging illegally. Greenpeace notes that its own research indicates a member of the Rougier Group is also involved in illegal logging activities. 15

December 2000

The Cameroonian government fines a member of the Rougier Group for illegal logging. 16

March 2001

Forests Monitor claims that the construction of logging roads by SIBAF has facilitated the bushmeat trade inside its logging concessions. 17

September 2001

A study presents cases of illegal logging by the Rougier and SEFAC Groups and calls for further investigation. 18

October 2001

WWF launches its partnership with SIBAF and a sister member of the Bolloré Group. The companies are logging the ancestral homelands of Baka and Bagyeli “Pygmies” without their consent.

"The fact is [WWF] is mostly outwitted by the companies who use it cynically.

John Vidal, Environment Editor at The Guardian, July 25, 2011." 19

WWF describes SIBAF’s Director as “satisfied that his company is a pacesetter in this direction towards sustainable forest management. 20

December 2001

Within days of a high-profile event on “sustainable forest management” organized by WWF in Brussels, the two members of the Bolloré Group that WWF has partnered with are publicly shamed by the Cameroonian authorities for breaking the law.

SIBAF has been caught falsifying documents in order to export rare species of wood; its sister company has been caught logging inside the Campo Wildlife Reserve. 21

2002

A study is published that investigates the ties of the Rougier Group to the Corsican mafia and explores how, together with the Pasquet Group and the Bolloré Group, Rougier is reinforcing corruption in Cameroon. 22

January 2002

A member of the Rougier Group is fined for exporting illegal timber. 23

"It was clear that the Panda does not necessarily see “observance of the law” as a criterion in its choice of bed-fellows." - Sarah Apele, reporting on a seminar on logging organized by WWF, February 2002 24

February 2002

An article notes that the two members of the Bolloré Group “have featured repeatedly in the Cameroonian government’s listings of forest sector miscreants.” It also recounts how

At a seminar of European and Cameroonian conservationists held in Paris earlier last year, WWF was warned by French non-governmental experts that Bolloré is implicated in a network of suspect and nefarious activities spanning the Congo Basin. These include trading links with companies involved in arms trafficking associated with the region’s brutal and persistent civil conflicts. 25

March 2002

With the help of Friends of the Earth France and Sherpa, Cameroonian villagers file charges against the Rougier Group in France for crimes carried
out in 1999 in Cameroon. The charges are ruled inadmissible in French court. 26

March 2002

A BBC investigation directly links Rougier to the bushmeat trade. 27

March 2002

Greenpeace reports that the SEFAC Group “is guilty of major violations of local forestry legislation and an arrogant disregard for the rights of local people.” Its report emphasises the link between SEFAC’s work and the bushmeat trade. 28

June 2002

The Cameroonian government files a report against Pallisco (Pasquet Group) for illegal logging. 29

July-August 2002

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor hears that SFID (Rougier Group) has been involved in intimidating local people. 30

"We really need to fight against this, because our forest is being finished off completely." - Baka woman living near one of the Rougier Group’s logging concessions in Cameroon, January 9, 2017

March 2003

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that the SEFAC Group is involved in illegal logging. 31

June 2003

WWF completes its recent project of partnering with logging companies in order to promote “sustainable forest management.” An independent assessment criticises its “poorly formulated logical framework,” and notes that it had an “unsatisfactory” impact in certain areas. It also observes that its “effectiveness” in many respects was “not measurable” and that its “efficiency” was “very unsatisfactory.” 32

This assessment follows an earlier study that observed that some of the companies with whom WWF had formed “partnerships” under this project had been involved in illegal logging activities. 33

June 2003

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that SFID (Rougier Group) is involved in illegal logging. 34

August 2003

The Cameroonian government reports that Pallisco (Pasquet Group) and members of the Bolloré, SEFAC and Rougier Groups have been involved in illegal logging. 35

September 2003

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor reports that SFID (Rougier Group) is involved in illegal logging. 36

May 2004

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that a member of the Decolvenaere Group is involved in illegal logging. 37

Pallisco has hired wildlife guards, who every year burn our forest camps to the ground and tell people: “You have no land here.” - Baka man, Cameroon, July 17, 2013

November 2005

July 2004

A report by Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor, approved by the Cameroonian government, details how the Rougier Group and Pallisco (Pasquet Group) have been logging illegally. 38

November 2004

Greenpeace accuses the Danzer Group of involvement in bribery, illegal logging in the Congo Basin, dealings with blacklisted arms trafficker and of suspected forgery. 39

May 2005

The organization Forest Peoples Programme hears how Baka are concerned for the moabi trees that they depend on and which are being cut down by Pallisco (Pasquet Group). 40

November 2005

Cameroon’s government and the Independent Forest Monitor find that a member of the SEFAC Group has been logging illegally. 41

December 2005

The The logging company Pallisco (Pasquet Group) joins WWF’s Global Forest & Trade Network. 42 Pallisco is logging the ancestral homelands of Baka “Pygmies” in Cameroon without their consent.

December 2005

Greenpeace finds that SFID (Rougier Group) “has been repeatedly involved in illegal logging in Cameroon” including sourcing wood from permits widely considered to be illegal. 43

February 2006

The Decolvenaere Group joins WWF’s Global Forest & Trade Network. 44 The group is logging the ancestral homelands of Baka “Pygmies” in Cameroon without their consent.

WWF has consistently brushed over the fundamental question we are posing, about whether the approach they are endorsing will actually do the job of saving forests. - Global Witness, May 25, 201245

April 2006

An Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for the mining company Geovic Ltd.’s planned mine on Baka land explains that the mine will be powered by wood supplied by Pallisco (Pasquet Group).

The assessment notes that up to 13km2 of forest will be cleared for the mine and that local people have expressed their concern that sacred trees will be destroyed. It recognizes that the mine will encourage poaching. 46

May 2006

Friends of the Earth publish a report on Pallisco (Pasquet Group) detailing its failure to log sustainably and in accordance with either Cameroonian law or the needs of the Baka and their neighbors. 47

May 2006

The Cameroonian government and the Independent Forest Monitor find that Pallisco (Pasquet Group) has violated logging regulations. 48

July 2006

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that SFIL (Decolvenaere Group) and Rougier have violated logging regulations. 49

August 2006

WWF welcomes the SEFAC Group into its Global Forest & Trade Network. 50 The group is logging the ancestral homelands of Baka “Pygmies” without their consent.

SEFAC eventually leaves or is ejected from WWF’s network. From the information WWF has made publicly available, it is not clear when or why. 51

Our main criticism is not that WWF has got too close to companies and failed to hold them to account, although that is true. It is that even if these companies were playing by the [...] rules, the system it endorses is fundamentally wrong. - Global Witness, May 25, 201252

August 2006

WWF claims that “The combined assets of [Pallisco (Pasquet Group), the Decolvenaere Group and another logging company that WWF has partnered with] will contribute to the social and economic development of Cameroon, as well as contribute to the conservation of Congo Basin forests.” 53

August 2006

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that two members of the SEFAC Group have violated logging regulations. 54

September 2006

WWF announces its partnership with the German logging giant Danzer. 55 The Danzer Group is logging the forests of Baka, Mikaya and Luma “Pygmies” in the Republic of Congo without their consent.

  

December 2006

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that SFID (Rougier Group) has violated logging regulations. 56

March 2007

Rougier publishes a map describing Baka forest camps inside its concessions as “Pygmes (poachers) camps [sic].” 57

IFO is finishing off all our trees. How are we going to live? - Baka living inside IFO’s concession (Danzer Group), Congo, August 6, 2013.

July 2007

WWF welcomes the logging company IFO (Danzer Group) into its Global Forest & Trade Network. 58 IFO is logging the forests of Baka, Mikaya and Luma “Pygmies” in the Republic of Congo without their consent.

When announcing this decision, WWF describes IFO as one of “the top five producers of lumber and logs in Africa” and explains:

We believe the commitment of IFO to responsible forestry should contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in this area while improving the livelihood of local communities, including the Pygmies. 59

April 2007

A report by Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor notes three summons issued by the Cameroonian government to members of the SEFAC Group for violating logging regulations. 60

October 2007

According to WWF, “responsible forest management and trade was revitalised” during a meeting in the Republic of Congo. 61

May 2008

A member of the Rougier Group is fined by the French government for price-fixing. 62

July 2008

Danzer is accused by Greenpeace of using an “elaborate profit-laundering system” in the Congo Basin, “designed to move income out of Africa and into offshore bank accounts.”

Greenpeace suspects that at least €7.8 million has been lost in public revenues, equivalent to the cost of vaccinating over 700,000 Congolese children under the age of five. 63

They cut everything down. Our caterpillars – where will we find them? And termites, and the kana, peke and payo fruits? - Baka man on SEFAC, one of WWF’s former logging partners, Cameroon, August 6, 2016.

July 2008

WWF claims to have “made effective forest management a reality in Africa’s Congo Basin.” 64

October 2008

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that SFID (Rougier Group) is involved in violating logging regulations. 65

December 2008

Future French Minister for Development, Pascal Canfin, publishes his assessment of SEFAC, after visiting its concessions at the invitation of WWF. He claims that SEFAC is minimizing its environmental impact, respecting Cameroonian law and meeting certification standards. 66

Less than one year later the Forest Stewardship Council withdraws SEFAC’s certification – a rare occurrence in the Congo Basin.

Mr Canfin is appointed Director General of WWF France in November 2015.

2009

WWF describes “a remarkable growth in responsible forest management” in the Congo Basin, and claims that it and its partners “have helped to transform the global forest products market by increasing the demand for legally produced products from well-managed forests by global businesses and other organizations .67

As a mark of encouragement [we] donated 10 leather footballs to the company.

WWF, May 2009 68

The balls are indeed awareness raising materials. - SEFAC, 2009 69

January 2009

The Forest Stewardship Council suspends one of its certification bodies, after finding that it “issued a certificate to [a] company despite the fact that there was evidence that the company was not in compliance with many FSC requirements.” 70

 

The company in question is SEFAC, one of WWF’s partners.

May 2009

WWF notes that the FSC certification body has been suspended but fails to mention that the company it certified wrongly was SEFAC.

Despite the fact that SEFAC’s certification is wholly discredited, WWF takes pains to endorse the certification, claiming that it means SEFAC is “putting [most] of its forest concession under responsible forest management.” 71

May 2009

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that SEFAC has violated logging regulations. 72

October 2009

WWF welcomes SFID (Rougier Group) into its Global Forest & Trade Network. SFID is logging the ancestral homelands of Baka “Pygmies” in Cameroon without their consent. 73

October 2010

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor finds that the Decolvenaere Group has violated logging regulations. 74

Perversely, GFTN rules continue to allow participant ‘trade’ companies to handle illegal wood for up to five years after joining. This has created the bizarre situation where GFTN has lower standards than prescribed in law. - Global Witness on WWF’s Global Forest & Trade Network, July 24, 2011 75

November 2010

Friends of the Earth carries out an investigation in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo. They visit one of Pallisco’s (Pasquet Group) old logging sites and hear that Pallisco has destroyed trees that are important to local people, making the gathering of certain forest resources no longer possible. They also visit an old site of Rougier’s and hear how the company has left local people poorer.

They meet with Baka who explain how many of the trees that are prized by WWF’s logging partners are very important to the Baka for the food and medicines they provide. 76

2011

WWF launches a new partnership with Vasto Legno, part of the SEFAC Group. It has reportedly received €45,000 from the company. 77

2011

Baka explain to a researcher how they have been beaten by wildlife guards in the area where SEFAC is logging. At least one of the victims believes it was SEFAC who sent the guards.78

June 2011

Greenpeace denounces the “major human rights violations” that have taken place in connection with logging operations carried out by SIFORCO, (Danzer Group) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 79

There are no positive impacts. We have lost plants and animals. The forest is no longer rich because of poachers. - Baka man on Rougier’s logging, Cameroon, July 17, 2016

July 2011

Global Witness publishes an evaluation of WWF’s Global Forest & Trade Network and finds that the scheme is “fundamentally flawed.”

Such flaws “allow some of its member companies to reap the benefits of association with WWF and its iconic panda brand while continuing unsustainable logging, conversion of forests to plantations, or trading in illegally sourced timber.”

The fact that the scheme is so accommodating towards companies, Global Witness concludes, “hampers the efforts of other organisations and programmes campaigning for higher standards in the forestry sector.” 80

July 2011

The Guardian’s Environment Editor writes that WWF in the Congo Basin “is mostly outwitted by the companies who use it cynically, buying the use of [...] the panda to promote a green image.”

He describes a visit he made to a logging camp in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2007:

I went with the villagers to the logging camp deep in the forest where hundreds of trees had been felled and were waiting to be transhipped to Europe and China. To my astonishment, there was a WWF office, complete with toy panda, right in the middle of the camp. As far as the villagers were concerned, WWF was the logging company, responsible for taking their timber. I tried to tell them that it was a conservation group trying to protect the trees, but it was useless. “WWF and [the logging company] are as one,” they said. 81

You are part of an audacious, world-changing and forward- thinking community.

WWF to logging companies that have joined its Global Forest & Trade Network, September 2011 82

September 2011

A Cameroonian court sentences in absentia Pallisco’s (Pasquet Group) long-time partner

Jean-Marie Assene Nkou to 25 years in prison on embezzlement charges related to the acquisition of the Cameroonian President’s airplane in 2004.

Mr. Assene Nkou’s logging concessions are operated by Pallisco and covered by Pallisco’s Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certificate. 83

September 2011

An assessment carried out for the French government on logging in the Congo Basin draws into question WWF’s approach by recognizing that

Current scientific knowledge does not allow us
to guarantee that the techniques used [by the logging industry] [...] will actually allow a sustainable management of the [forest] resource. The impact of human intervention in a complex natural environment is far from understood and the results of research will still take years before providing all the necessary analytical evidence .84

November 2011

Cameroon’s National Anti-Corruption Commission describes the inter-ministerial commission for the allocation of logging permits in Cameroon as “a well-orchestrated criminal organization.” 85

I can tell you that there are rivers here whose beds are drying up, and this has never happened before. Nowadays we can’t eat wild mangoes as we used to in the dry season, because they don’t grow like they used to. These are just some of the changes happening due to the destruction of the forest. - Baka man from a community near one of Rougier’s logging concessions, 2013 86

May 2012

Global Witness writes that

WWF has consistently brushed over the fundamental question we are posing, about whether the approach they are endorsing will actually do the job of saving forests.

Our main criticism is not that WWF has got too close to companies and failed to hold them to account, although that is true. It is that even if these companies were playing by the scheme’s rules, the system it endorses is fundamentally wrong. 87

April 2013

WWF salutes “Rougier’s commitments to responsible forest management in the Congo Basin.” 88

May 2013

The sustainability certification for WWF’s partner Danzer is temporarily suspended by the Forestry Stewardship Council. This is a result of the human rights abuses its subsidiary is reported to have contributed to in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 89

2014

Cameroon’s Independent Forest Monitor publishes its assessment of logging from 2010 to 2013.

It notes that members of the SEFAC Group have committed five infractions in this period; members of the Pasquet Group and its partners have committed seven; members of the Decolvenaere Group have committed eight; and members of the Rougier Group have committed 18 infractions. 90

They are plundering the forest. They are ruining the wild mangos, the tortoises and snakes with their vehicles. Streams, when they pass them, become big lakes. - Baka man describing Rougier’s logging, Cameroon,July 18, 2016

June 2014

During an assessment of three of Rougier’s logging concessions in Cameroon, the FSC auditing team finds that that the Baka are still unaware of their rights, nearly five years after the company started partnering with WWF. 91

August 2014

A study commissioned by the European Union finds that not one company is respecting Cameroon’s logging regulations.

It finds that certified logging companies are in some respects less compliant with the law than are non-certified logging companies. The Rougier and Pasquet Groups both include certified companies working in Cameroon. 92

2015

The Baka forest camp of Ngwandji, in IFO’s (Danzer Group) concession in the Republic of Congo, is evicted by wildlife guards.

January 2015

Another member of the Rougier Group joins WWF’s Global Forest & Trade Network. 93

January 2015

A study accounts for how attempts to reform logging in Cameroon have stalled. It finds that corruption continues to be a dominant feature of the logging sector. 94

Global Witness reports that SINFOCAM (Vicwood Group) illegally obtained its logging permits inside the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area Complex in Central African Republic..

Important trees that have become rare in one area logged by Rougier in Cameroon: 97

boyo Entandrophragma cylindricum

boso Combretodendron macrocarpum

bemba Afzelia bipidensis

guga Alstonia boonei

mbalaka Pentaclethra macrophylla

boluma Cyclodiscus gabunensis

etenge Pycnanthus angolensis

epue Enantia chlorantha

bangi Chlorophora excelsa

gbologa Drypetes capillipe

kulo Ceiba pentandra   

lembe Diospyros crassiflora

ngolou Terminalia superba

gbado Triplochiton scleroxylon

po Parinari excelsa

kana Panda oleosa

ngbabi Cordia platythyrsa

September 2015

Greenpeace links the Decolvenaere Group to what appears to be illegal logging. Its report identifies all wood from Cameroon as “high risk.” 96

December 2015

The Bayaka and Gbaya community of Motokobiro is illegally evicted to make way for SINFOCAM.

January 2016

WWF is paid over €149,000 to “collaborate” with SINFOCAM. SINFOCAM soon starts logging on the ancestral homelands of Bayaka “Pygmies” without their consent, and without an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment. 98

January 2016

WWF and Rougier “take stock” of the progress made through their partnership. WWF describes Rougier as “a leading player in the international timber market.” 99

June/July 2016

`Wildlife guards evict Baka from their forest camp at Inyele, in IFO’s logging concession in the Republic of Congo.

June/July 2016

The same wildlife guards go on to beat and arrest one Baka man in a forest camp in Ngwandji and take him to the logging town of Ngombe, in IFO’s concession.

EFYD is destroying caterpillar trees – they’re becoming rarer – and medicinal trees. Tortoises and pangolins too. - Baka man, Republic of Congo, September 8 2016. WWF is negotiating with SEFYD in order to create the Messok-Dja National Park

July 2016

Baka in the region of Djoum, Cameroon, explain to Survival International that Rougier is destroying their forest.

They are cutting down almost everything and making animals disappear. -Baka man, July 18, 2016

One community lists 17 species of tree that have become rare as a result of logging in Rougier’s concessions.

August 2016

Baka in Cameroon explain to Survival International that SEFAC is logging their lands without their consent.

They cut everything down. Our caterpillars – where will we find them? And termites, and the kana, peke and payo fruits? And trees like mobolo, boyo, gbado, ngolo, guga, mondanga, mbalaka, ngbe, lembe, bolema, bangi, etenge. All of that gives us food or medicines. - Baka man, Salapoumbe commune, Aug. 6, 2016

They note that certain species of animal, such as tortoises, pythons and giant pangolins, have become rare as a result of SEFAC’s logging.

October 2016

FSC suspends the certification body that certified Pallisco (Pasquet Group), Vasto Legno and SEFAC as sustainable, because it has failed to resolve “major non-conformities with FSC accreditation standards.” 100

November 2016

Baka report to have found Rougier’s subsidiary SFID logging illegally outside its concessions in Cameroon. 101

January 2017

A team of researchers finds that the rainforest has been broken up at the same rate within logging concessions certified as “sustainable” by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) as in non-certified concessions, or at an even higher rate. 102

WWF helped to establish FSC in 1993.

Endnotes

1 World Wildlife Fund, “WWF France and Rougier to jointly advance responsible forest management and trade,” WWF website, April 9, 2015.

2 This word is considered pejorative and avoided by some tribespeople, but used by others as a convenient and easily recognized way of describing themselves. Because it is the most widely understood term, Survival has chosen to use it, while emphasizing that it is problematic.

3 In 2011 Global Witness, which worked as Cameroon’s official Independent Forest Monitor from 2000 to 2005, published a review of WWF’s scheme that highlighted several areas urgently in need of reform: Global Witness, Pandering to the loggers: Why WWF’s Global Forest and Trade Network isn’t working, A briefing by Global Witness, London, 2011. While WWF has made certain superficial changes to the scheme, its overall approach remains the same.

4 WWF International, Indigenous Peoples and Conservation: WWF Statement of Principles, Gland, Switzerland, WWF International, 2008.

5 Global Witness, Pandering to the loggers: Why WWF’s Global Forest and Trade Network isn’t working, A briefing by Global Witness, London, 2011, p.3.

6 Rodgers, J.J. et al., Draft Report: Economic, Training and Community Needs Assessment of the Proposed Cameroon Component, Central African Regional Forest Conservation Initiative, 1991, p.74, Annex 7.1.3.d)

7 Interafrican Forest Industries Association, Information Bulletin No. 1 – IFIA Activities, Q1, 1999. Cited in Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.66.

8 Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.66.

9 Cameroon Tribune, March 24, 2000. Cited in Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.66.

10 Tropical Timbers, vol 15 no 3, March 2000. Cited in Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.55.

11 This interview can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=M4RZTq4oZxs and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gb1j_ dKx0q0

12 Labrousse, A. and F.X. Verschave, Les pillards de la forêt, Exploitations criminelles en Afrique, Marseille, Agone, 2002, p.27

27 WWF and the loggers

13 Cameroon Tribune, July 12, 2000. Cited in Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.66.

14 Ministère de la Environnement et des Forêts (MINEF), Rapport de Mission de Controle de la S.I.M. et de la I.N.C., 02 juillet 2000, cited in Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.61.

15 Greenpeace, Plundering Cameroon’s Rainforests: A case-study on illegal logging by the Lebanese logging company Hazim, 2000, p. 14.

16 Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.12.

17 Forests Monitor, Sold down the river – The need to control transnational forestry corporations: a European case study, 2001, p.55.

18 Auzel, P. et al., Impact de l’exploitation forestière illégale sur la fiscalité, sur l’aménagement et sur le développement local : cas de l’UFA 10 030 dans l’arrondissement de Messok, Province de L’Est, Cameroun, Forests Monitor, IUCN and DFID, 2001.

19 Vidal, J., “How WWF works with the logging companies,” The Guardian, Environment Blog, July 25, 2011.

20 World Wildlife Fund (WWF), “WWF and Loggers Inaugurate Partnership,” WWF Cameroon Programme office website, n.d.

21 Apele, S., Tail wags the dog, Unpublished, February 2002.
22 Labrousse, A. and F.X. Verschave, Les pillards de la forêt, Exploitations

criminelles en Afrique, Marseille, Agone, 2002. 23 ibid., p.28.
24 Apele, S., op. cit.
25 ibid.

26 Sherpa, Rapport d’activité 2006, 2007, p.3.

27 BBC Four, Ape Hunters, produced by Jeremy Bristow, March 18, 2002. Cited in Greenpeace, Forest crime files: UK Government fuelling the destruction of Africa’s Forest of the Great Apes, n.d., p.2.

28 Greenpeace, Groupe SEFAC destroying Cameroon’s ancient forests, Forest crime file: logging profile, 2002.

29 Global Witness, Report No 014Fr, Central Control Unit – Independent Observer Joint Mission: Project of Independent Observation in Support of

28 WWF and the loggers

the Control and Monitoring of Forestry Offences in Cameroon, 2002, p.5.

30 Global Witness, Report of the Independent Observer No. 022n, Central Control Unit – Independent Observer Joint Mission: Project of Independent Observer in Support of Forest Law Enforcement in Cameroon, 2002,p.7

31 Global Witness, Report No. 049En, Central Control Unit - Independent Observer Joint Mission: Project of Independent Observation in Support of the Control and Monitoring of Forestry Offences in Cameroon, 2003, p.1.

32 Tractebel and Seca, Evaluation finale du projet, Promotion de la gestion durable des forêts et de la certification dans les pays producteurs
de bois du bassin du Congo, Synthèse, 2003. Cited in Counsell,
S. and A. Labrousse, “The Political Ecology of the African Logging Concession System and the Complicity of International Donors,” in Rainforest Foundation and Forests Monitor, Concessions To Poverty:

The environmental, social and economic impacts of industrial logging concessions in Africa’s rainforests, 2007, pp.26-35.

33 Apele, S., Tail wags the dog, Unpublished, February 2002.

34 Global Witness, Report of the Independent Observer No. 062En, Central Control Unit – Independent Observer Joint Mission: Project of Independent Observer in Support of Forest Law Enforcement in Cameroon, 2003, p.1.

35 Ministère de la Environnement et des Forêts (MINEF) press release, dated August 12, 2003. Reproduced in Global Witness, Forest Law Enforcement in Cameroon 2nd Summary Report of the Independent Observer December 2001 - June 2003, 2003, pp.22-23

36 Global Witness, Forest Law Enforcement in Cameroon 2nd Summary Report of the Independent Observer December 2001 - June 2003, 2003, p.8.

37 Global Witness, Report of the Independent Observer No. 091En, Central Control Unit – Independent Observer Joint Mission: Project of Independent Observer in Support of Forest Law Enforcement in Cameroon, 2004, p.1.

38 Global Witness, Rapport d’Analyse des données produites par le Système Informatique de Gestion de l’Information Forestière (SIGIF) au Cameroun Exercice 2002/2003, 2004.

39 Greenpeace, Danzer involved in bribery, illegal logging, dealings with blacklisted arms trafficker and suspected of forgery, Forest Crime File, 2nd edition, Amsterdam, 2004.

29 WWF and the loggers

40 Les Amis de la Terre, La société Pallisco et l’exploitation du moabi (Baillonella toxisperma) dans l’Est du cameroun, 2006, p.8.

41 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 026 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2005, p.6.

42 According to information listed on WWF’s website: http://gftn.panda. org/.

43 Greenpeace, Illegal logging in Cameroon: How French Government action is fuelling rainforest destruction, Forest Crime File, Amsterdam, 2005 p. 4.

44 According to information listed on WWF’s website: http://gftn.panda. org/.

45 Picken, T., “Blog: Why We Need Laws to Protect What’s Left of Our Forests,” Global Witness Blog, May 25, 2012.

46 Knight Piésold and Co., Projet de Nkamouna, Cameroun, Evaluation Environnementale et Sociale, vol. 1, Etude d’Impact Environnemental
et Social, prepared for Geovic Cameroon, 2007, pp. 26, 98. For more information please see Labrousse, A., La bonne mine de Pallisco, 2006.

47 Les Amis de la Terre, La société Pallisco et l’exploitation du moabi (Baillonella toxisperma) dans l’Est du cameroun, 2006.

48 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 036 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2006, pp.6-11; Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 037 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2006, p.6.

49 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 052 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2006, pp.13, 30-31.

50 World Wildlife Fund, Sustainable Forest Products Global Alliance: Project period April 1, 2008 – September 30, 2008, Year 6 Quarter 3/4 Report, 2008, p.37.

51 At some point between April 26, 2009 and July 18, 2011, the SEFAC Group was removed from WWF’s list of GFTN participants. It does not appear on WWF’s GFTN Former Participants List dated April 2016.

52 Picken, T., “Blog: Why We Need Laws to Protect What’s Left of Our Forests,” Global Witness Blog, May 25, 2012.

53 World Wildlife Fund, “Large tracts of Congo Basin rainforest pledged

30 WWF and the loggers

to responsible management,” Global Forest & Trade Network Quarterly, Issue 2, 2006, p.3.

54 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 053 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2006, pp.10, 12, 16-17.

55 World Wildlife Fund (WWF), “Danzer Group and WWF to cooperate,” WWF website, September 13, 2006.

56 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 058 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2006, p.5.

57 Société Forestière et Industrielle de la Doumé (SFID), Plan d’aménagement: Massif de Djoum Mintom, UFA 09-003, 09-004a, 09- 005a & 09-005b, Période 2000 à 2029, March 2007, p.233

58 World Wildlife Fund, Sustainable Forest Products Global Alliance: Project period April 1, 2008 – September 30, 2008, Year 6 Quarter 3/4 Report, 2008, p.38. IFO remains in the network until May 2013, according to WWF’s GFTN Former Participants list dated April 2016. WWF notes that the participation agreement was terminated by WWF, but it does not explain the reasons for this decision.

59 World Wildlife Fund, “Industrie Forestière Ouesso Joins the Central Africa Forest & Trade Network,” Global Forest & Trade Network Quarterly, Issue 1, 2008, pp.1-2.

60 Resource Extraction Monitoring (REM), Rapport trimestriel n°8, Projet d’Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières au Cameroun, p.16.

61 World Wildlife Fund UK (WWF-UK), Forest & Trade Network Summer 2008 Newsletter, 2008, p.8

62 Conseil de la concurrence, Décision n° 08-D-12 du 21 mai 2008 relative à des pratiques mises en œuvre dans le secteur de la production du contreplaqué, 2008.

63 Greenpeace, Conning the Congo, Amsterdam, 2008, pp. 2, 34.
64 World Wildlife Fund, WWF Global Forest & Trade Network Newsletter

July 2008, 2008, p.4

65 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 084 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2008, p.9.

66 Canfin, P., “Cameroun : pour une exploitation durable de la forêt,”

31 WWF and the loggers

Alternatives Economiques no. 039, June 1, 2008.
67 World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Global Forest & Trade Network Report 2009,

2009, p.24.
68 World Wildlife Fund UK (WWF-UK), Forest & Trade Network Spring 2009

Newsletter, 2009. p.7. 69 ibid.

70 Accreditation Services International (ASI), ASI Suspension Request Report, ASI-REP-122-ICILA-2009-Suspension CAMEROON, 2009.

71 World Wildlife Fund UK (WWF-UK), Forest & Trade Network Spring 2009 Newsletter, 2009. p.7.

72 Observateur Indépendant au Contrôle et Suivi des Infractions Forestières, Rapport No. 088 / OI / REM, Mission conjointe BNC – Observateur Indépendant, 2009, p.10-12.

73 According to information listed on WWF’s website: http://gftn.panda. org/.

74 Observateur indépendant au contrôle forestier et au suivi des infractions forestières au Cameroun, Rapport Mission No. 001 / OI / AGRECO-CEW, 2010, p.32

75 Global Witness, Pandering to the loggers: Why WWF’s Global Forest and Trade Network isn’t working, A briefing by Global Witness, London, 2011, p.11.

76 Les Amis de la Terre France and Les Amis de la Terre Cameroun, Déforestation durable? Une enquête sur la face cachée de l’exploitation forestière au Congo, 2011, 38 minutes.

77 It is unclear when this partnership ended. Vasto Legno continued to display WWF’s logo on its website until February 12, 2015, when Survival International raised its concerns with WWF. By the time WWF replied on March 27, 2015, saying it had no partnership with Vasto Legno, Vasto Legno had taken down the logo.

78 These interviews can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=M4RZTq4oZxs and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gb1j_ dKx0q0

79 Greenpeace, “SIFORCO Involved in Violence and Human Rights Violations,” Greenpeace website, June 16, 2011.

80 Global Witness, Pandering to the loggers: Why WWF’s Global Forest and Trade Network isn’t working, A briefing by Global Witness, London,

32 WWF and the loggers

2011, pp. 3, 11.

81 Vidal, J., “How WWF works with the logging companies,” The Guardian, Environment Blog, July 25, 2011.

82 World Wildlife Fund, Celebrating 20 Years of Advancing Conservation through Responsible Forestry and Trade, 2011, p.3.

83 Cameroon Tribune, “Marafa et Fotso, 25 ans de prison,” September 23, 2012.

84 Samyn, J.-M., Secteur forestier dans les pays du Bassin du Congo
: 20 ans d’interventions de l’AFD, Evaluation for Agence Française de Développement (AFD), 2011, p.9. Cited and translated by Global Witness, Blood Timber: How Europe helped fund war in the Central African Republic, 2015.

85 Commission nationale anti-corruption (CONAC), Rapport sur l’état
de la lutte contre la corruption au Cameroun en 2011, 2011. Cited in Blackman, J., “How to Future-Proof the EU’s Efforts to Save the World’s Last Rainforests,” Global Witness blog, May 11, 2016.

86 Labous, J., “A Tale of Two Worlds – Why an Ancient Tribe’s Quest to Save Its Forest and Identity Is Our Problem, Too,” The Huffington Post Blog, September 17, 2013.

87 Picken, T., “Blog: Why We Need Laws to Protect What’s Left of Our Forests,” Global Witness Blog, May 25, 2012.

88 World Wildlife Fund, WWF GFTN Newsletter: April 2013, 2013, p.10. 89 FSC Global Development GmbH and Danzer AG, Memorandum of

Understanding, dated July 10, 2013.

90 Observateur indépendant au contrôle forestier et au suivi des infractions forestières au Cameroun, Rapport Final Janvier 2010 - Décembre 2013, 2014, pp.25-26. In 2013 Rougier SA owned 64.99% of Lorema and 65% of Cambois. See Rougier, “Note 3 – Périmètre de consolidation,” Rapport financier 2013, 2014, p.74.

91 Rainforest Alliance, Public Summary Report for Forest Management 2014 Annual audit Report for: Société Forestière Industrielle de la Doumé SFID, FMU 10 054, 10 056 & 10 038 in Eastern Region of Cameroon, 2014.

92 Duhesme, C., Evaluation de la conformité des documents associés au processus d’attribution de chaque titre forestier en vigueur au Cameroun, Audit indépendant du système FLEGT au Cameroun, 2014, p. 27. This audit was never published.

Photo credits

© Selcen Kucukustel/Atlas: p. 7.

93 According to information listed on WWF’s website: http://gftn.panda. org/.

94 Hoare, A., Illegal Logging and Related Trade: The Response in Cameroon, A Chatham House Assessment, 2015.

95 Global Witness, Blood Timber: How Europe helped fund war in the Central African Republic, London, 2015, p.33.

96 Greenpeace Nederland, CCT’s Timber Trade from Cameroon to Europe: A Test Case for EUTR’s Due Diligence Requirement, 2015, p.19.

97 According to members of one community interviewed on July 18, 2016. Binomial names taken from Brisson, R., Utilisation des plantes par les Pygmées Baka, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2011.

98 Personal communication from Mr Romain Lorent, November 8, 2016.

99 World Wildlife Fund (WWF), “WWF and Rougier take stock on the progress made after one year of collaboration to promote responsible forest management,” January 26, 2016.

100 Forest Stewardship Council, “Accreditation Services International (ASI) Has Suspended Certification Body Bureau Veritas From Issuing FSC Chain Of Custody (COC) And Forest Management (CM) Certificates Worldwide.” FSC Newsroom Webpage, October 24, 2016.

101 The geographic coordinates for the site that SFID was reportedly found to be logging illegally are (2.6898248°, 12.6657096°).

102 Potapov, P. et al., “The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013,” Sci Adv 2017, vol. 3, p.6.

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